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Te Whakahoahoa Kuranga

Te Whakahoahoa Kuranga

Last updated by robin ohia

Te Tāutu Whakahoahoa Ako / Instructional Design Defined
He tukanga whakapunahatanga te whakahoahoa ako hei whakawhanake tukutahi i te whakahaeretanga ako me ngā rauemi ako. 

Ko te āta tūhonohono whakaraupapa rānei i ngā momo rauemi ataata ā hiko (hangarau mōhiohio) me ngā kaupapa ako hei āwhina i ngā ākonga me ngā kaiako te matua mahi o te whakahoahoa ako. 
Ko te āta aroturuki ki te whakamātau o te ākonga, ā, te tāutu hoki i ngā whainga mutunga o te akoranga me te whakarite rauemi whakataunga ako hei āwhina i te tauwhironga ngā tukanga whānuitanga o te whakahoahoa ako.

E tika ana ka whai whakaaro ai te tukanga i ngā ariā matua o ngā mātāpono kaupapa ako (pedagogies) tūturu i ngā takiwā o te ākonga, i te ārahitanga o te kaiako i ngā wāhi hāpori rānei. 

I ahu mai te whai whakaaro whakahoahoa ako i ngā tikanga tūturu o te kaupapa ā hinengaro (cognitive), te kaupapa whanonga (behavioural psychology). 

Tauira Whakahoahoa Ako / ID Models
Ko te tauira whakahoahoa ako rongonui pea ki te whakarite ki te whai whakaaro whakahaeretanga ako rauemi rānei ko ADDIE. Ko ēnei ngā wahanga e rima e whai whakaarohia e ADDIE:

    * Analyze - ko te whakatātari i ngā āhuatanga ako, ngā whakaakoranga atu
    * Design - te whakaarotanga ki ngā whainga ako, te kōwhiri huarahi ako 
    * Develop - te whakarite i ngā ihirangi kaupapa akoranga me ngā rauemi   
    * Implement - te tuku tohatoha rānei i ngā ihirangi kaupapa ako
    * Evaluate - te aroturuki i te whakatutukitanga o ngā whainga e ngā ihiranga kaupapa ako 

He whakaaturanga whakaahua porowhita tēnei i ōna ariā matua tirohia. Ka whai haere te nuinga o ngā tauira whakahoahoa ako o ēnei rā i a ADDIE.

He kaupapa rangatira hoki te whai ake i ngā kōrero rangahau i te whakarite whakahoahoa ako pērā i te whanonga (behaviorism), te ahunga (constructivism), te hāpori ako (social learning) me te kaupapa ā hinengaro (cognitivism). Ka āwhina ngā kaupapa rangatira nei i te ahunga o ngā tāutunga i ngā putanga ako o ngā whakahoahoa rauemi ako.

Kai Rangahau / Researchers
    * Lev Vygotsky - Learning as a social activity - 1930s
    * B.F. Skinner - Behaviorism - 1940s
    * Benjamin Bloom - Taxonomies of the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains - 1955
    * R.F. Mager - ABCD model for instructional objectives - 1962
    * Jean Piaget - Cognitive development - 1960s
    * Seymour Papert - LOGO - 1970s
    * Robert M. Gagné - Nine Events of Instruction - 1970s
    * Jerome Bruner - Constructivism
    * Dick, W. & Carey, L. "The Systematic Design of Instruction" - 1978
    * Michael Simonson - Instructional Systems and Design via Distance Education - 1980s
    * M. David Merrill and Charles Reigeluth - Elaboration Theory / Component Display Theory / PEAnets - 1980s
    * Robert Heinich, Michael Molenda, James Russell - Instructional Media and the new technologies of instruction 3rd ed. - Educational Technology - 1989
    * Roger Schank - Constructivist simulations - 1990s
    * David Jonassen - Cognitivist problem-solving strategies - 1990s
    * Ruth Clark - Theories on instructional design and technical training - 1990s
    * Charles Graham and Curtis Bonk - Blended learning - 2000s