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Game Design

Prensky’s six structural elements of games, namely

  1. Rules. Games set down limitations and draw lines on how the players may interact with the elements in the game. Players learn the rules and their options very quickly. → mechanics, rule
  2. Goals and objectives. Games use well-placed incremental goals and challenges to step the players through the games, rewarding them with the satisfaction of accomplishment. → objective
  3. Outcome and feedback. The above are supported and strengthened by providing clear and immediate feedback on the players' behaviors → achievement, feedback
  4. Conflict, competition, challenge and opposition (grouped under compete). Providing a conflict or an opposition ties in with the objectives of overcoming this hurdle. Very few people can resist a fun challenge and its rewards! → challenge, attitude induced, role
  5. Interaction. The ability to influence the environment is one of the basic requirements of all interactive activities, including games. → dynamics
  6. Representation or story. A gripping and interesting story provides the needed reward to encourage the players to accomplish the goals → narrative, story-telling.